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History of Egypt from Past to Present

Supporters of president Al-Sisi at Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo in june 2014. Photo HH.
Supporters of president Al-Sisi at Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo in June 2014. Photo HH.

Egypt – the region cleaved from the south to the north by the river Nile – was home to successive civilizations throughout the centuries and in modern times is the sole true nation state in the Arab world. Developments in the country have always left a strong mark on the rest of the region, and will continue to do so in the future. This also goes for the ousting of the first democratically elected Islamist President, Mohammed Morsi, by the Army, followed by the take-over by former General Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi, who was elected in May 2014.

Meanwhile, with Hosni Mubarak being freed from prison, a crackdown on media and political opponents, including former President Mohammed Morsi (who was sentenced to twenty years in jail in April 2015), the Egyptian revolution seems over. The regime of Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi has a firm grip on the country while its international legitimacy is growing, despite widespread accusations of human rights abuses. The regime is trying to turn a new page, including attracting foreign investors and implementing high-profile projects, such as the new Suez Canal, which was opened in August 2015.

Further Reading

Civilization in Egypt has always been related to the River Nile. Nomadic tribes settled along the banks of the river, eventually leading to the creation of two separate states: upper Egypt, from today's Cairo on south and lower Eg...
Arab-Muslim forces from the Arabian Peninsula defeated the Byzantine army in 636 CE. During the following centuries, Egypt was Arabized and Islamized
A secret revolutionairy organization of officers, the Free Officers Organization, seized power in 1952. King Farouk was forced to abdicate
Nasser's charisma and ideology of Arab nationalism made him immensely popular among the Egyptian and other Arab masses
Sadat’s ambition was to reassert Egypt afte rits demoralizing defeat in the 1967 war. In cooperation with Syria he prepared for a surprise attack on Israel
Hosni Mubarak, a former Air Force general, continued on the path Sadat had laid out. The struggle against radical Islamists characterized his presidency
The revolution started on Police Day, a public holiday, 25 January 2011, with a series of peaceful demonstrations in Cairo
After taking over, Tantawi, commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, acted practically as Egypt’s president
During Morsi's rule, Egypt became polarized between Morsi's Islamist supporters and his opponents, including leftists, liberals and secularists. While his rule was not what some Egyptians had hoped for, the idea of democratic legi...
After three years of economic turmoil and a lack of security, many people had very high expectations of al-Sisi’s presidency. Unless he delivers tangible results early on, his position might not be secure, especially considering...

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