The rule of the Umayyad caliphs, whose seat was in Damascus (661-750), was replaced by that of the Abbasid caliphs (750-969), who transferred the administrative centre from Damascus to Baghdad. A Shiite dynasty from North Africa, the Fatimids, eventually drove the Abbasids from their territory. These afterwards became involved in a power struggle with the Seljuk Turks who captured al-Quds in 1073 but who were driven out by the Fatimids in 1098 – on the eve of the arrival of the crusaders.
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