More than a century before, the crusading armies, led by Richard Lionheart, had already suffered a heavy defeat at the hands of the legendary general from Cairo, Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi (known in the West as Saladin) at the Battle of Hattin in 1187 in the north of Palestine. In that same year, he took Jerusalem, al-Quds thus again falling into Muslim hands after 88 years of crusader rule. It would remain so until World War I.
In 1258, Mongol invaders captured Baghdad and brought down the Abbasid dynasty. Two years later, their advance was stinted by the Mamluks (slaves), soldiers in the service of the Ayyubid sultans (Saladin’s successors), who had afterwards gained power at the Battle of Ayn Jalut in northern Palestine.
We would like to ask you something …
Fanack is an independent media organisation, not funded by any state or any interest group, that distributes in the Middle East and the wider world unbiased analysis and background information, based on facts, about the Middle East and North Africa.
The website grew rapidly in breadth and depth and today forms a rich and valuable source of information on 21 countries, from Morocco to Oman and from Iran to Yemen, both in Arabic and English. We currently reach six million readers annually and growing fast.
In order to guarantee the impartiality of information on the Chronicle, articles are published without by-lines. This also allows correspondents to write more freely about sensitive or controversial issues in their country. All articles are fact-checked before publication to ensure that content is accurate, current and unbiased.