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Facts & Figures


Political leadership

Syria Bashar al-Assad

President Bashar al-Assad (since 2000)

Prime Minister Imad Khamis (since 3 July 2016)


total: 185,180 sq km Note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory (Golan Heights)


total: 2,253 km

Border countries

Iraq605 kmIsrael76 kmJordan375 km
Lebanon375 kmTurkey822 km


193 km


17,064,854 (2014 est.) (country comparison to the world: 65)

Age structure

0-14 years: 32.5% 15-64 years: 63.5% 65+ 4% (2015 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.16% (2015 est.)


Urban population: 57.7% of total population (2015) rate of urbanisation: 1.37% annual rate of change (2010-2015 est.)

Major cities

Aleppo 3.56 million, Damascus (capital) 2.6 million, Homs 1.6 million, Hamah 1.2 million, Latakia 781,000 (2015 est.)

Ethnic groups

Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians and other 9.7%


Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Ismaili and Shia 13%, Christian (various denominations) 10%, Druze 3%


Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian (widely understood), French, English (somewhat understood)


(Age 15+ Can Read and Write) total population: 86.4% male: 91.7% female: 81% (2015 est.)


$55.8 billion (2014) $61.9 billion (2013)

GDP Real growth rate

-9.9% (2014 est.) -36.5% (2013 est.)

GDP per capita (PPP)

$5,100 (2011 est.) $5,100 (2010 est.)

Unemployment rate

total 57.7% (2014 est.), youth (15-24) 35.8% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line

82.5% (2014 est.)

Public debt

57.2% of GDP (2015 est.) 51.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Inflation rate

33.6% (2015 est.)

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