Results for Tag: HumanRights
The most recent instrument of international law dealing with remedies for victims following wrongful acts by states is the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law (2005) (hereafter Guidelines). The Guidelines ‘do not entail new international or domestic obligations but identify mechanisms, modalities, procedures and methods for the implementation of existing legal obligations under international human rights law and international humanitarian law’.
The expulsion of a population is considered illegal in a number of international instruments including Article 9 and 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention (1949), Article 4 of the Fourth Protocol of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), and the international instruments mentioned under Guidelines. It is considered a crime against humanity in the Rome Statute.
The World Health Organization’s 2008-2013 Tunisia Country Cooperation Strategy states that Tunisia has improved his health-care system over the past years, despite the country’s limited material resources. This has led to a generally effective system, with the public sector accounting for 90 percent of hospitalizations in basic health-care facilities.
Freedom of speech is guaranteed in the Constitution, but the government restricts this right in practice. The Law of Printing and Publishing No. 15 of 1980 applies to all media, prohibiting ‘defamatory material and negative material about presidents, friendly countries, religious issues, and pornography’. The law prohibits criticism of rulers and speech that may create or encourage social unrest. Journalists and editors practice extensive self-censorship for fear of government retribution, particularly because most journalists were foreign nationals and could be deported.
Health care is free only for UAE citizens. Standards of health care in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are considered generally high, as result of significant government spending on this sector. In 2002, total expenditures on health care were 3.1 percent of GDP; in that same year, the per capita expenditure for health care was USD 802.
The government does not allow international human-rights NGOs to be based in the country but does allow limited visits by their representatives. There are no transparent standards governing these visits, but the government generally showed some cooperation with certain international organizations, including the UN Children’s Fund and the UNHCR. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs has an office in the UAE.