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Turkey from the present to the past

A protester holds a poster of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk at a demonstration in Istanbul /Photo Corbis

According to some experts, Turkey might be labeled as “The Confused Republic”. This label is originated by the conflict between two characteristics of the republic’s identity.

On the one hand, Turkey’s identity has an influential secular element forcibly imposed by Atatürk and the military institution. On the other hand, Turkey has a deep rooted Islamic element by which Turkey ruled the Islamic world for hundreds of years as a sultanate and a Caliphate. Currently ruled by “Recep Tayyip Erdogan”, Turkey played a decisive role in many historical files, such as the Sunni-Shia conflict, the “Eastern Question” and constructing the Arab and Kurdish nationalities.

Turkey’s historical role does not end here. On this land was the Islamic Caliphate capital, the Byzantine Empire capital, in addition to being a confrontation space during the Crusades.

In this section, we will try to cover this country’s history from its present to its past. By this we attempt to get through the conclusive events which laid out Turkey’s present and identity from a historian’s perspective.

Erdogan redraws the Turkish political milestones /features (2002 – 2020)

In 2002, no one would have imagined that the Justice and Development Party’s leader Erdogan would be able to dominate over the Turkish political scene in 2020. Erdogan – who sits at the top of the presidency – converted the political regime from a parliamentary to a republican system in 2018, dissolved the partnership with the “Gülen movement” in 2016, and diminished the army’s role in politics in 2010.

But Erdoğan’s role did not come in a vacuum, as he could enhance the Turkish economy, solve the issues with the Kurds, in addition to his reliance on a conservative base which has long-awaited embracing the state’s Islamic heritage, far from the dreams of joining the European Union.
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Political instability and the army’s decisive role (1938 – 2002)

Three military coups and a threat of a fourth are enough to reveal the Turkish army’s role in drawing the features of Turkey. The pressure imposed by the army forced the Islamic Welfare Party leader “Necmettin Erbakan” to resign from the premiership under the allegations of threat to the country’s secularism. Also, the Turkish army was the sole side controlling the ongoing conflict with the Kurds, which resulted in more than 40,000 victims. Despite the efforts made to establish liberal political features for Turkey by Turgut Özal and the Motherland Party, the country could not rid itself of the authoritarian rule imposed by the 1982 constitution. This army-imposed constitution came out as a result of a decade full of confrontations between the far-left and right-wing parties.

Before this phase, the Turkish army turned against the political pluralism and the Democratic Party’s rule and its leader “Adnan Menderes” in 1960. Before the 10 years of the Democratic Party’s rule over Turkey, the Republican People’s Party (GHP) held the reins of power during the phase that came after the death of “Mustafa Kemal Atatürk”, the founder of the Republic of Turkey in 1938.
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Atatürk and the transition from the Sultanate to the Republic (1908-1938)

World War One victorious countries imposed the Treaty of Sèvres on the Ottoman Sultanate in 1920. The treaty in its essence meant practical elimination of the Ottoman Sultanate, as the British, the Italians, The French and the Greeks took over areas of influence in the heartland of Turkey. The treaty granted the Armenians and the Kurds the right to self-determination and independence as well.

While the treaty posed an existential threat to Turkey as a state, it created an opportunity for Atatürk to move towards a secular republic, far away from its Ottoman and Islamic heritage. Atatürk, who won the “Wars of Independence”, enforced structural changes in the Turkish culture and society’s core. These changes included imposing the “Kemalism”, using Latin characters, the abolition of the sultanate and the Caliphate and the abolition of the Sufi movement. Furthermore, Kemalists imposed prayers to be done in the Turkish language. Naturally, these changes came with the support of the military institution, of which Atatürk came from.
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From an Islamic Identity to a Strict Nationalism (1808-1938)

The last century of the Ottoman Sultanate was a critical point in the transition of Turkey from a Caliphate to a secular republic. What started with reforms made by Sultan Mahmoud II (most notably the organization of the Turkish army on the western basis), reached a hectic level with the European countries’ pressure to impose “The First Constitutional Era”. This era included the constitution of the Chamber of Deputies and announcing a constitution for the country).

Despite Sultan Abdul Hamid II attempts to sustain the Islamic element of the Ottoman empire, the groups supporting Turkification prevailed at the expense of the other “Ottoman” ethnic elements of the state. This new orientation encouraged steps towards dissolving the Ottoman state after WWI.
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The Ottomans from a Strong Empire to the Eastern Question (1299-1808)

Turkey has lived for hundreds of years in the heart of the ongoing international conflict between a Christian Europe and the Islamic World, represented by the Ottoman state. Over time, this state transformed into a major empire with its capital in Istanbul (since 1453). The Ottoman armies besieged Vienna (1683). It is worth mentioning that the Ottoman Sultan became the Muslims’ Caliph after the victory over the Mamluks in 1517. That year, the Abbasid Caliph concessed the caliphate to Sultan Selim I.

After facing repetitive defeats to the Russians and the grow of the European powers (Britain and France), the empire reached a stage of decay at middle of the 19th century. The Ottoman empire was labelled as (The Sick Man of Europe). The European countries’ interests of influence have grown in the Ottoman Empire. These countries competed each other to acquire political and economic gains in the core of the empire in what was called as “The Eastern Question”.
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From Alexander the Great to the Byzantine Empire (334 BC-1453)

Over more than a millennium, the Byzantine Empire produced an ancient civilization that combined Greek, Roman, Eastern and Christian elements.

For centuries, this empire was able to face the Islamic expansion. However, it reached the beginning of the end when it was defeated in the battle of Manzikert (1071).

Turkey has fallen under the rule of the Roman Empire by the year 188 BC, after the Hellenistic rule since 334 BC.

The Anatolia region is one of the most ancient populated areas in the world. This territory was a homeland for prehistoric societies and states, such as Acadians, Hittites, Phrygians and Lydians. In addition, these ancient times were marked by three groups: Greek, Armenians the Persians.
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Further Reading

During the 6th and 5th centuries BCE Anatolia fell under the control of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. In 334 BCE it was conquered by Alexander the Great. After his death in 323 BCE Anatolia was split up in a series of small Helle...
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© Copyright Notice

Please contact us in case of omissions concerning copyright-protected work. The acquired copyright protected images used on/as featured image of this page are: Corbis ©Hollandse Hoogte | Corbis ©Hollandse Hoogte

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