Chronicle of the Middle East and North Africa

Media in Libya

Libya media press
Local press visits illegal detention camp near Tropoli, Libya, 4 July 2015. Photo Cyril Marcilhacy / Cosmos


Libya’s media environment has transformed from an exclusively state-controlled apparatus, with the primary objective of disseminating propaganda, to a violent and unregulated sector where partisan media outlets air conflicting views with little space for independent reporting.

During the era of Italian rule in Libya in the early 20th century, the mass media was used almost exclusively as a tool to promote Italy’s colonial propaganda. By the 1930s all Libyan newspapers had been replaced by publications loyal to the Italian government, and in 1937 radio broadcasts were transmitted directly from Rome to major Libyan towns and cities. When the British government administered the country between 1942 and 1951 the media environment remained a colonial tool, with no Arab-owned publications prior to Libyan independence.

It was only after Libya achieved independence in 1951 that the country began to form its own domestic media environment. During the reign of King Idris (1951-1969), several newspapers were established and expressed relatively free opinions along the lines of the country’s four main socio-political orientations – capitalism, communism, Islamism, and pan-Arabism. King Idris’ regime published pro-government newspapers, mainly in Tripoli and Benghazi, and slowly began to curb press freedom. This era also witnessed the creation of Libya’s first national radio station, Radio Libya, set up in 1957 by UNESCO with a U.S. company, and the country’s first terrestrial television channel, which went on air in 1968 financed in part by the U.S.

After Muammar Gaddafi seized power in 1969, he co-opted the media apparatus to propagate the Jamahiriya, the official name of Libya under his rule, which means “state of the masses”. The media was officially run by “People’s Committees”, which oversaw all public organisations and were in turn operated by Gaddafi loyalists. Gaddafi introduced two new radio stations, The Voice of the Koran and The Voice of the Arab Homeland, while the length of live television broadcasting was increased. Newspapers were only allowed to represent specific professional syndicates and cover news relating to them. During this era Gaddafi sought to expand the media’s reach through infrastructure developments such as the Five Year Plan of Broadcasting (1976-1980), so that his speeches and ideology could permeate the entire country.

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However, the introduction of new technology meant that Libyans became gradually more exposed to external broadcasts and influences. Satellite television emerged in the mid-1980s, with Libya playing an active role in the 1985 launch of Arabsat, the first satellite from the Middle East and North Africa region. When Al Jazeera began broadcasting in 1996, it received wide viewership from Libyans who had grown disillusioned with the country’s single terrestrial channel, and while the regime launched its rival satellite channel Al Jamahiriya in the same year, pan-Arab channels proved far more popular.

The internet was also introduced in Libya in early 1997, but penetration remains low, at just 18 percent of the population, and limited to the country’s cities. Poor infrastructure, likely linked to the Gaddafi government’s desire to limit external influences, has meant that the country has among the lowest internet penetration and slowest connections in the world.

By the beginning of the 21st century, Libya was under increasing economic and political pressure to liberalize its society, and one of Muammar Gaddafi’s sons, Saif al-Islam, was championed as something of a reformist. In 2007, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi announced the creation of several enterprises under his al-Ghad media company including two newspapers, a radio station and a satellite channel. This new generation of media outlets offered a more liberal editorial line and paid greater attention to local problems and societal issues, gaining popularity among Libyan audiences as a result, and suggested that the domestic Libyan media environment was finally becoming more open. However, Libyan conservative groups soon responded by pressuring Muammar Gaddafi into nationalising al-Ghad, closing down its new satellite channel and temporarily banning one of its newspapers.

After the 2011 revolution and the ouster of the Gaddafi regime, the transitional government opted to abolish the main newspapers of the Gaddafi era and establish new ones, while closing the country’s flagship television channel, Al Jamahiriya TV (later relaunched on Nilesat). Private print publications, websites, television and radio stations began to emerge rapidly in this new era of media openness. However, the country’s subsequent civil war and ongoing conflicts have led to a chaotic media environment.

Freedom of Expression

Although Libya’s ineffective state structure means the domestic media can finally operate free from authoritarian regulations and government intervention, the media environment remains highly dangerous and repressive. The country ranks as number 164 (out of 180 countries) in Reporters Without Borders’ 2016 World Press Freedom index.

Following the 2011 revolution, various interim authorities have been entrusted with drafting a new constitution for the country, but as of November 2016 the document, the interim Constitutional Declaration, is still pending a national consensus, as a permanent version has yet to be ratified by a referendum. This has led to a situation whereby selective laws from the Gaddafi era are still being enforced by the various factions overseeing Libya’s post-revolutionary administration. For example, in February 2014 Libya’s then interim parliament, the General National Congress (GNC), passed a law forbidding criticism of the 2011 revolution or government officials, echoing Gaddafi-era regulations.

Journalists operating in the country now live under threat and intimidation perpetrated by armed militia groups, leading many to practice self-censorship or report from abroad. Because of the factional political environment, media outlets are effectively controlled by the dominant militia groups operating in their region of circulation.

There has been a marked increase in attacks on Libyan journalists, reporters, and media personalities, with more journalists disappearing in Libya than in Syria since 2014. More than 30 attacks against journalists were reported to Reporter Without Borders in 2015.The attacks are often carried out by armed groups, affiliated with local militias or Islamist groups, with the aim to silence media criticism. One of the most prominent incidents occurred in May 2014, when Miftah Bouzeid, editor-in-chief of Burniq, a Benghazi-based independent newspaper and an outspoken critic of various Islamist factions and political parties in Libya, was shot dead in Benghazi as he was delivering newspapers.

2016 has witnessed an increasingly bloody conflict between Islamist extremists in the Islamic State stronghold of Sirte and militia groups attempting to reclaim the city. This has led to the deaths of several journalists covering the conflict, including Libyan television correspondent Abdelqadir Fassouk in July and Dutch photojournalist Jeroen Oerlemans in October. A Libyan freelance journalist, Khaled al-Zintani, was killed in June covering clashes between Islamist militants and the Libyan National Army in Benghazi.


Private television channels have become widespread in Libya since 2011 and are more popular than state-owned equivalents, although foreign satellite channels continue to attract larger audiences due to the historical association between domestic television and propaganda during the Gaddafi era. The most popular domestic television channels are as follows:

  • Al-Wataniya: Established in 2012 as the main state channel, replacing Al Jamahiriya TV. At present it is operated by the Tripoli-based GNC and airs a mixture of documentaries, talk shows and news programming pertaining to the GNC.

  • Alassema TV: Established in 2011 and initially broadcasting from the Tunisian capital, Tunis, Alassema TV now broadcasts from Tripoli. The channel has a reputation for criticising Islamist groups in Libya, especially the Muslim Brotherhood, and was subject to a series of attacks in 2014 from suspected Islamist assailants.

  • Libya al-Hurra: Established in 2011 as an online television channel, it operates from Benghazi, where it was the first private television station, and the only TV station to broadcast when Muammar Gaddafi cut the Internet lines during the final days of his reign. It gained a reputation for airing footage of Benghazi and its residents during the revolution. It now broadcasts interactive talk shows with its online audience on social and political subjects.

  • Libya al-Ahrar (or Libya TV): Established in 2011 as the main channel for the then National Transitional Council (NTC) and funded largely by expatriate Libyan businessmen, Libya al-Ahrar broadcasts from Doha but has offices in Tripoli and Benghazi, the latter of which has come under attack from militia groups. The channel offers a limited amount of its daily news programming in Berber language. The channel has increasingly shown support for Libya’s revolutionary Islamist factions that are opposed to General Haftar in eastern Libya, potentially due to pressure exerted by its Qatari hosts.

  • Al-Nabaa TV: Established in 2013 with a pro-Libya Dawn (GNC) stance. In January 2016, its Tripoli office came under fire from unknown assailants. In March, unknown gunmen stormed the office and forcibly closed down the channel, labelling it the “channel of discord and instigation”. The channel has since resumed operations.

  • Libya Awalan TV: Founded in 2011 by Libyan businessman Hassan Tatanaki, known for his anti-Islamist sentiments, Libya Awalan TV is based in Cairo, Egypt. The channel is strongly pro-Haftar and the House of Rrepresentatives, reflecting the stance of its host country. The channel’s online streaming and social media platforms have been notably inactive over the past year.


Radio remains the second most popular media platform in Libya, behind television. But in contrast to television, Libyan radio stations are far more popular than international broadcasts because of their focus on local content. Due to the limited reach of FM broadcasting, the most popular radio stations in Libya tend to be regional networks. Radio stations have been subject to frequent attacks from armed groups, prompting the majority to eschew political broadcasting and some to completely shut down.

The Libyan Radio and Television Corporation (LRTC) operates three public radio stations from Tripoli:

  • Al-Wataniya FM: Affiliated to the television channel of the same name, with a pro-GNC stance. The station airs news bulletins and political shows.

  • Radio Libya: The relaunched 2011 version of the country’s first radio channel.

  • Al-Shababiyah (17 February) FM: The relaunched 2011 version of the youth-oriented radio station that was first established during the Gaddafi era.

Private stations

  • Libya FM: Based in Cairo and affiliated with the Cairo-based Libya TV, it broadcasts music and news programmes. The station is able to broadcast across FM and AM frequencies to most Libyan cities, but  focusses its broadcasting on Benghazi.

  • Tripoli FM: Broadcasts in both English and Arabic, opting for predominantly entertainment programmes.

  • Lebda FM: Tripoli-based radio station known for  inviting on-air participation from the public. It also provides a daily programme in the Amazigh language.

  • Sawt Libya al-Hurra (The Voice of Free Libya): Collective name for three radio stations that began broadcasting in 2011 in opposition to the Gaddafi regime, operating via local frequencies in Benghazi, Misrata and Bayda. The stations gained international notoriety for their coverage of the 2011 revolution.


Libya has notably few daily newspapers and circulation levels are small in comparison with its North African neighbours. The printed press traditionally served as a mouthpiece for Gaddafi propaganda and therefore failed to engage widespread audiences, while in the current climate new private publications are often shut down or subjected to intimidation. Modern print newspapers also regularly suffer from financial difficulties and struggle to attract experienced Libyan journalists, some of whom disagree with the decision to close down all pre-2011 publications.
Prominent print publications include:

  • Quryna al-Jadida (New Quryna): 2012 relaunch of Quryna, a newspaper initially created by Saif al-Islam’s al-Ghad media group in 2007. The newspaper is based in Benghazi and is one of the most popular in Libya.

  • Wefaq Libya: Weekly publication that began as a Facebook page, now printing around 3,000 issues per week from Misrata. Has a particular focus on youth issues and news, and is distributed also in Tripoli and Benghazi.

  • Febrayer: Daily published as the state newspaper of the Tripoli government.

  • Burniq: Independent Benghazi-based newspaper that publishes three times per week in Benghazi. Its editor-in-chief was murdered in 2014, likely due to outspoken criticisms of Islamist groups.

  • Sawt (Voice): Established during the 2011 revolution as a medium for citizen journalism in Benghazi. Citizens submitted articles and reports via a mailbox in Freedom Square, in downtown Benghazi, during Gaddafi’s ban on telecommunications in the city.

Social Media

Although internet penetration is low in Libya, social media has provided a cheap and logistically easy means for emerging news outlets to publish content. Social media platforms, particularly Facebook, are extensively used by state and non-state actors. Human rights organization Freedom House observes that “Facebook is often the platform of choice for city and even government officials to publish updates and official communication.” Militia groups use Facebook as their primary means of disseminating information, as does the Libyan army. The Islamic State’s Libyan branch has also harnessed social media as a propaganda outlet.

According to a 2013 survey of 3,500 Libyans conducted by Altai Consulting, Facebook is considerably the most popular social media platform in the country with 58 percent of internet users indicating it as their “preferred international website”, followed by YouTube (21%), and Twitter (9%). The same survey also estimates that just over a quarter of Libya’s adult population (26%) is registered on Facebook.

Despite social media providing a new outlet for citizen journalism and freedom of expression in Libya, online activists and bloggers have been subjected to severe abuse in the post-2011 environment.

In 2014 a short-lived Facebook page was established to document the names and addresses of online activists in Benghazi, and to ultimately call for their assassination. In Tripoli, also in 2014, political activist Moez Bannon spoke out against militias on social media and subsequently disappeared. He remains unaccounted for. Furthermore, in February 2015, Intisar al-Hasiri, a human rights advocate who blogged about democracy and the rule of law, was found shot dead in her car.

Online Publications

Online newspapers and websites have proliferated rapidly in Libya since 2011 but are subject to the same restrictions as social media users. Publishing content that is critical of ruling militias in certain areas often leads to reprisals and therefore the most independent online outlets tend to operate from abroad.

  • Bawabat al-Wasat: News website based in Cairo that has garnered a reputation for being one of the more impartial sources in the Libyan media environment. The website was blocked for 9 months from February 2015 due to its coverage of ongoing negotiations around the formation of the Government of National Accord (GNA).

  • Libya Herald: Established in 2012 by a British journalist, Michel Cousins, The Libya Herald is an English-language online publication based in Tripoli.

  • Ajwa: Popular news website operated by the Art Media Solutions group (AMS), which also produces content for Libya al-Ahrar TV. In 2016, four AMG producers and journalists, working for both Libya al-Ahrar and Ajwa, were abducted by armed men in Tripoli. They were released shortly afterwards, although threatened not to criticize Tripoli-based militias again.

News Agencies

When Libya Dawn militias arrived in Tripoli in 2014 to re-establish self-declared GNC rule, they took over the Libyan News Agency (LANA). This prompted the House of Representatives in Eastern Libya to establish a rival news agency using the same name in al-Baida. At present both news agencies disseminate information in favour of a particular faction. A third news agency, Al-Tadamun, was established in Switzerland in 2011 but has since relocated to Benghazi. It is largely perceived as more reliable than the two partisan state news agencies. In 2015, the European Union and Deutsche Welle Akademie launched the  Libyan Cloud News Agency, based in Tunis, which uses satellite-link technology and the online cloud platform to allow Libyans to circumvent regional censorship and report in a more open environment.