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The Arab Republic of Egypt

Map Egypt
Egypt Map

Official name: The Arab Republic of Egypt (Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiya)

Egypt is considered one of the most important countries of the Arab world due to its central position and large population. The waters of the Nile River, fertile farming land (due to deposit of silt in the basin as a result of annual flooding), combined with a substantial redundancy of manpower, have formed the economic basis for successive civilizations in the region today encompassing the Arab Republic of Egypt. Over the past century the country has, however, experienced economic decline, driven by both external and internal factors.

Egypt fulfils the role of trendsetter in the region: driving force behind Arab nationalism (under Gamal Abdel Nasser), total subsequent subordination to Western politics (under Anwar al-Sadat and Hosni Mubarak), followed by the take-over, via elections, by moderate Islamists (under Mohammed Morsi). The subsequent ousting of the democratically elected Islamist government by the Army may in turn set an example in the Arab world.

In addition, as the historical home to al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo, the most important Sunni educational centre, Egypt holds a prominent position in the much larger world of Sunni Islam. The regime of Egypt’s President, Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi, elected in May 2014, is trying to turn a new page since it ousted the first democratically elected Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in June 2013. However, the demographic, economic and political problems remain considerable.

Further Reading

Page with a chronological overview of the country file articles published on the Chronicle website.
Egypt was home to successive civilizations throughout the centuries and in moder times is the sole true nation state in the Arab world
Basic facts and figures about the politics, geography, population, and economy of Egypt.
Fanack provides an overview of Egypt's geography, including its state borders, local climate, and natural resources.
An overview of Egypt's governance and politics, including its different branches of government and governance challenges.
The concept of human rights has become a well-known and widely accepted term to use. An overview of human rights in Egypt.
Egypt’s largest trading partner is the European Union: some 35 percent of Egypt’s total foreign trade is with the EU. Within the EU, Italy is Egypt’s main export destination. The United States is Egypt’s second largest tra...
The vast majority of the population is Sunni Muslim. The largest minority consists of Coptic Christians, but there are no recent official statistics for their number. According to the census of 1986, 6 percent of population was Co...
In the 20th century Egypt was an intellectual and cultural centre in the Arab world. In recent decades, however, it has lost much of its prestige
Faces of influential people of Egypt, people that are/were Egypt's game changers.

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