Another problem resulted indirectly from participation in education that was encouraged by the authorities. With education, a growing number of Iraqis acquired middle-class status but were unable to develop themselves further, let alone earn an income consistent with that status. The policy served primarily the interests of the large landowners and their British protectors. In 1955 Iraq’s subservience to Great Britain was underscored again, when it joined the anti-Communist and anti-Arab-nationalist Baghdad Pact, an alliance between Great Britain, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan. This all undermined the legitimacy of the rulers, including the monarchy, among much of the population.