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Amidst the war, the Palestinian leaders proceeded to issue the proclamation of the All-Palestine Government on 8 July 1948, with the support of the Arab League, a collaboration of Arab states which had been established a few years earlier. Government leadership fell into the hands of Grand Mufti Hajj Amin al-Husayni. However, this political initiative did not get off the ground and died an early death at the end of the 1950s.
At the end of the 1950s, a new leadership announced itself in the organization of the Palestinian National Liberation Movement (Fatah). The leader of the movement was a young engineer, Yasir (Yasser) Arafat. Other Palestinian resistance groups also arose besides Fatah. As disappointment grew regarding the efforts of the various Arab states, their leaders felt it was time for the Palestinians to organize themselves independently. The Arab states, for their part, regarded this as a worrying development which could unexpectedly entangle – i.e. without preparation – the front-line states in a new round of combat with Israel. In an attempt to keep a hold on the situation, they established the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1964, an umbrella organization.